PowerLight

From RevSpace
Revision as of 16:23, 5 August 2022 by Bertrik Sikken (talk | contribs) (Backend)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Project PowerLight
PowerLight.jpg
Show energy mix of dutch power generation as a pie chart on a LED ring
Status Completed
Contact bertrik
Last Update 2022-08-05

The concept

Draw the current dutch electrical power generation-mix as pie chart on a LED ring light, with colors representing fractions of a specific power generation source.

For example:

  • yellow: solar
  • blue: wind
  • red: fossil
  • green: nuclear
  • grey: other/waste

Power generation data

Information about energy in Europe is collected at the european organisation https://www.entsoe.eu/ . The section about electrical energy is collected in ENTSO-E. Data is available from this platform at a 15-minute interval.

TenneT is the organisation that supplies ENTSO-E with data from the Netherlands.

Information about ENTSO-E generation domain API: https://transparency.entsoe.eu/content/static_content/Static%20content/web%20api/Guide.html#_generation_domain

Also possibly interesting (requires an API key), but might actually just use the entso-e data: https://static.electricitymap.org/api/docs/index.html#introduction

Power generation categories

The backend uses the following categories

ENTSO-E numbers the production types from B01 to B20 ("PsrType"), how these are filled for the netherlands:

  • B01 (biomass): always 0, not useful
  • B02: not available
  • B03: not available
  • B04 (fossil hard coal): useful
  • B05 (fossil gas): useful
  • B06: not available
  • B07: not available
  • B08: not available
  • B09 (geothermal): not available
  • B10 (hydro): not available
  • B11 (hydro): always 0
  • B12 (hydro): not available
  • B13 (marine): not available
  • B14 (nuclear): useful
  • B15 (other renewable): not available
  • B16 (solar): hugely underreported, *not* useful
  • B17 (waste): useful
  • B18 (wind offshore): useful
  • B19 (wind onshore): useful
  • B20 (other): useful

The solar power problem

In particular the solar power fraction is incomplete, but also the biomass figures are missing. See:

There is a model that estimates the solar fraction, also at a regional level, at https://api.netanders.io/, however use of this model requires a paid subscription.

What I'm currently doing for the solar fraction, is to use the ENTSO-E forecast instead of the actual solar numbers reported to them, see yesterday's wind/solar forecast. Perhaps this can also be done for the wind fraction.

Data schedule

Entso-E provides data with a resolution of 15 minutes. It appears to become available about 5m20s after the start of each 15 minute period (:00, :15, :30, :45). At that point, the most recent data is from an interval that ended 30 minutes ago. So, including the 5m20s minute processing delay, the most recent data available is about 35 minutes old.

Hardware

Parts:

Software

The software consists of two parts:

  • The backend part that collects the power generation data, written in Java, running on a VPS
  • The light part that visualizes the power generation as fractions on a LED ring, running on an Arduino

Backend

Source code: https://github.com/bertrik/energymix-server

Runs as a REST-like resource at:

(1-minute rate limit)

Returns a JSON-structure like:

{
  "time": 1657057500,
  "total": 9122,
  "mix": [
    { "id": "solar", "power": 0, "color": "#FFFF00"},
    { "id": "wind", "power": 4, "color": "#0000FF"},
    { "id": "fossil", "power": 86, "color": "#FF0000"},
    { "id": "nuclear", "power": 5, "color": "#FF00FF"},
    { "id": "other", "power": 4, "color": "#444444"},
    { "id": "waste", "power": 1, "color": "#444444"}
  ]
}
  • time is a unix time stamp in seconds, representing the end of the 15-minute period that the power figures refer to
  • total is the total most recent electrical power (megawatt), suitable for display (on a numeric display inside the ring for example)
  • energymix is an array of power sources, each with:
    • a short unique id
    • most recent known power (megawatt)
    • hex color, for display on the led ring

Energy generation sources are calculated from sources as follows, mostly from document A75:

  • solar = B16 (from the forecast document A69)
  • wind = B18 + B19
  • fossil = B04 + B05
  • nuclear = B14
  • waste = B17
  • other = B20

Light

Source code: https://github.com/bertrik/PowerLight

The Arduino sketch polls the REST API using HTTP every minute.

WiFi is managed by WifiManager. LEDs are controlled using FastLED. JSON content is parsed using ArduinoJSON.